The triple helix of university–industry–government interactions is a universal model for the development of the knowledge-based society, through innovation and entrepreneurship. It draws from the innovative practice of Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with industry and government in inventing a regional renewal strategy in early 20th-century New England. Parallel experiences were identified in “Silicon Valley,” where Stanford University works together with industry and government. Triple helix is identified as the secret of such innovative regions. It may also be found in statist or laissez-faire societies, globally. The triple helix focuses on “innovation in innovation” and the dynamic to foster an innovation ecosystem, through various hybrid organizations, such as technology transfer offices, venture capital firms, incubators, accelerators, and science parks. The Triple Helix as a universal innovation model can assist students, researchers, managers, entrepreneurs, and policymakers to understand the roles of university, industry, and government in forming and developing “an innovative region,” which has self-renewal and sustainable innovative capacity.
Academic Entrepreneurship: University Spinoffs and Wealth Creation (New Horizons in Entrepreneurship Series)
Over fifty years ago, Vannevar Bush released his enormously influential report, Science, the Endless Frontier, which asserted a dichotomy between basic and applied science. This view was at the core of the compact between government and science that led to the golden age of scientific research after World War II—a compact that is currently under severe stress. In this book, Donald Stokes challenges Bush’s view and maintains that we can only rebuild the relationship between government and the scientific community when we understand what is wrong with that view. Stokes begins with an analysis of the goals of understanding and use in scientific research. He recasts the widely accepted view of the tension between understanding and use, citing as a model case the fundamental yet use-inspired studies by which Louis Pasteur laid the foundations of microbiology a century ago. Pasteur worked in the era of the “second industrial revolution,” when the relationship between basic science and technological change assumed its modern form. Over subsequent decades, technology has been increasingly science-based. But science has been increasingly technology-based–with the choice of problems and the conduct of research often inspired by societal needs. An example is the work of the quantum-effects physicists who are probing the phenomena revealed by the miniaturization of semiconductors from the time of the transistor’s discovery after World War II. Stokes builds a convincing case that by recognizing the importance of use-inspired basic research we can frame a new compact between science and government. His conclusions have major implications for both the scientific and policy communities and will be of great interest to those in the broader public who are troubled by the current role of basic science in American democracy.
The pathway to bringing laboratory discoveries to market is poorly understood and generally new to many academics. This book serves as an easy-to-read roadmap for translating technology to a product launch – guiding university faculty and graduate students on launching a start-up company.
- Addresses a growing trend of academic faculty commercializing their discoveries, especially those supported by the National Science Foundation and National Institutes of Health
- Offers faculty a pathway and easy-to-follow steps towards determining whether their discovery / idea / technology is viable from a business perspective, as well as how to execute the necessary steps to create and launch a start-up company
- Has a light-hearted and accessible style of a step-by-step guide to help graduate students, post-docs, and faculty learn how to go about spinning out their research from the lab
- Includes interviews by faculty in the disciplines of materials science, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, information technology, energy, and mechanical devices – offering tips and discussing potential pitfalls to be avoided
Universities increasingly encourage spin-out companies from their own departments, and interest from entrepreneurs and the commercial sphere is only set to develop further in coming years. With this in mind, Professor Graham Richards – an academic and businessman who has had many years of involvement with spin-out companies – has written this book as a guide and an inspiration for those who are thinking about commercialising intellectual property and creating a spin-out company. In an informative and enjoyable style he describes his personal experiences of the processes involved in launching a spin-out; from the key decisions that have to be made through to those inevitable mistakes to be learnt from. The University of Oxford has an outstanding record in forming spin-out companies, and has become one of the leading UK universities in this activity. Within the University, the Department of Chemistry has played a central role, with £80 million being contributed to university funds by spin-out companies that have emerged from the department. ‘Spin-Outs’ provides an insight into how this has been achieved, and carefully signposts the route for taking an academic’s intellectual property from the lab, to a start-up company and then on to flotation on the stock market. As a former head of Chemistry at Oxford, Professor Graham Richards is uniquely placed to describe this process. The author gives a real-life focus to his account by using illustrative examples of the businesses in which he was personally involved, drawing extensively on the case study of Oxford Molecular Ltd to show how this company was spun-out in practice. The book provides invaluable information for universities about what can be achieved and how. It also provides guidance to the entrepreneur with thoughts of creating a high-tech company: the pitfalls, the problems and what is needed, as well as an indication of the potential benefits to all concerned.
Research to Revenue: A Practical Guide to University Start-Ups (The Luther H. Hodges Jr. and Luther H. Hodges Sr. Series on Business, Entrepreneurship, and Public Policy)
University start-ups are unique in the world of business and entrepreneurship, translating research conducted at and owned by universities into market-ready products–a complex process that requires a combination of scientific, technical, legal, business, and financial skills to be successful. Start-ups have the potential to generate revenue for universities, enhance faculty recruitment and retention, create jobs, and create investment opportunities for venture capitalists and entrepreneurs. Research to Revenuepresents the first-ever comprehensive guide to understanding, starting, and managing university startups. By systematically describing the process of translating academic research into commercial enterprises, Don Rose and Cam Patterson give a thorough, process-oriented, and practical set of guidelines that cover not only best practices but also common–and avoidable–mistakes. They detail the key factors and components that contribute to a successful start-up, explain what makes university start-ups unique, delineate the steps of building and managing them, and describe how to foster and maintain start-ups at a university. Written for faculty and staff working on campus, tech-transfer officers, university administrators, and venture capitalists unfamiliar with university structures, Research to Revenue ensures that any reader unfamiliar with technology commercialization and entrepreneurship will understand the fundamentals of the process, including intellectual property rights, fund-raising, and business models. This work is an invaluable resource for the successful formation and well-managed operation of university start-ups.
University Startups and Spin-Offs teaches university students, researchers, and educators the most effective strategies and tactics for launching their own startups from academic platforms with the backing of school programs, public grants, incubators, seed accelerators, and private partnerships in all parts of the world. Serial entrepreneur Manuel Stagars advises students, faculty, and researchers how to test their ideas for marketability, how to develop commercial products out of research projects, and how to engage companies and investors with attractive value propositions. The author has seventeen years of experience as startup entrepreneur, founder of seven companies in the United States, Europe, and Japan, consultant to universities on commercializing their research programs, angel investor, and startup mentor. Stagars’ advice is field-tested, battle-hardened, and supported with a wealth of instructive first-hand examples from his international experience. The author advises academic entrepreneurs to take matters into their own hands instead of relying on the initiative and support of universities and governments. He shows students and researchers how to fit lean startup methods to their existing university ecosystems, leveraging their strengths without getting bogged down in bureaucratic morass. Avoiding theory and jargon, the book focuses on real-world situations, practical steps, checklists, and case studies. University students and researchers will learn the skills they need to become startup entrepreneurs on an academic platform. The final part of University Startups and Spin-Offs addresses university administrators, educators, technology licensing officers, incubator managers, and government grant officers. It shows them with practical examples from the private and academic sectors how to integrate startups into the fabric of the university, develop a thriving entrepreneurial ecosystem for students and researchers, leverage latent network effects, build bridges between scientific research and industries seeking innovative solutions, enhance the public image of the university, and motivate the university’s best and brightest to engage in startup enterprises that will deliver benefits to the university and the public as well as to themselves.
This comprehensive guide takes first-time entrepreneurs through every step of founding a life science company. Written by veterinarian and postdoc scientist-turned startup marketer, Leah Cannon, ‘How to Start a Life Science Company’ covers all the business basics that we aren’t taught in science and engineering courses. This book is based on interviews with hundreds of life science entrepreneurs and offers a blueprint of how a clinician, scientist, engineer or student could found a successful life science company. It runs through how to decide whether your science can be commercialized, intellectual property protection, regulatory hurdles, how to find the right co-founders, how and when to incorporate, how to write product development, marketing and business plans, and how to pitch to investors. If you want to found a biotech, medtech, digital health or healthcare company, this book will give you the basics you need and give you templates on how to structure your company, write your product development plan, marketing plan and pitch deck. It also contains a glossary of the basic business terms you will need to know to speak with investors, mentors and advisors. Founding a life science company gives you the chance to change the health and lives of millions of people around the world. This sort of dream is why many of us studied science or medicine in the first place. First-time entrepreneurs have a steep learning curve. It takes an exorbitant amount of hard work to found and run a company. It is a rollercoaster ride, with exhilarating highs and devastating lows. You have to convince yourself and the world that you are creating something of value, a product or service that will solve a big problem. But for natural entrepreneurs, the challenges that come with starting a company are thrilling. Every day is different. Every day you are solving problems, meeting goals and climbing the mountain towards first revenue or a successful exit.